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甲醛中毒事件再发 拿什么保护我们的“花朵”

 

    今年3月,安徽合肥一幼儿园大班在添置了吊柜和鞋柜后,10余名孩子陆续出现发烧、呕吐等身体不适症状,疑似甲醛中毒……

    4月,江西南昌一幼儿园发生集体甲醛中毒事件,70余名幼儿出现不同程度过敏现象……

    甲醛作为世界卫生组织确认的一类致癌物,对人体的呼吸系统、生殖系统、基因等有着严重危害。

    近日,上海市质监局对市场在售的儿童家具进行了抽查,21批次产品中有14批次未能达标,不合格率达到2/3。其中,甲醛指数超标是主要原因之一。

    而在2013年第4季度,质检总局曾组织抽查了北京、上海、江苏、山东、湖南、广东、四川等7个省、直辖市61家企业生产的61批次儿童家具产品。检验发现33批次产品不符合标准规定,其中,产品木制件甲醛释放量这一项目为主要不合格原因。

    关注儿童房污染超标

    国家室内环境与室内环保产品质量监督检验中心主任宋广生认为,含甲醛的材料是危害人体健康、引起中毒的主要原因。家具、地板,乃至窗帘都可能释放甲醛,且甲醛释放时间较长,通常能达到3~15年的水平。

    “污染室内环境、空气质量的化学指标很多,但其他污染物释放较快,例如油漆中的苯,两个多月即可释放完毕,而甲醛则不会。”宋广生说。

    国家室内环境与室内环保产品质量监督检验中心数据显示,60%以上的普通城市新装修家庭存在甲醛、苯、甲苯等危害气体超标现象,其中,儿童房的情况更为严重。“在北京的调查显示,72%以上的儿童房化学污染指数超标。”他说道。

    而从目前国家家具及室内环境质量监督检验中心检测的数据来看,仍存在家具、家居产品甲醛指标不合格现象。

    高密度摆放成危害推手

    引发幼儿园集体甲醛中毒事件背后,除甲醛外,其他多方原因也是导致这类事件发生的推手。

    宋广生认为,学生的课桌椅、家具等本身可能已符合标准,但在例如教室、食堂等有限的空间内,摆放数量超过该场所的空间材料承载量,就会影响室内空气质量。

    幼儿园、学校在建造过程中,教室的比例与密度是确定不变的。一个原本容纳15名幼儿的教室,其空间承受力确保空间空气质量处于较为平稳的状态。可一旦教室内容量扩充,例如学生增多、教学设施增多,就会使其原本平衡的空间承受力被打破,再加上不合格或非环保材料课桌椅、家具的使用,使得类似甲醛中毒事件频率大大上升。

    此外,大气环境因素也不能忽视。近几年愈演愈烈的霾,也对学校、幼儿园等青少年、儿童密度较高场所的空气质量产生一定影响。

    多方保障杜绝危害

    中毒事件屡发,政府部门及相关职能部门须加强监管,学校、家长也可利用各种手段减少危害。

    宋广生表示,由国家室内环境与室内环保产品质量监督检验中心发起的全国“校园新风”行动,将利用智能化监测仪,实时监测学生所处环境的空气质量。而利用智能终端、大数据、移动APP等方式,可以使家长在任何场所实时了解孩子所处场所的环境状况。“检测会越来越便利,误差也会越来越小。”宋广生表示,下一步将利用校园“新风行动”,走进全国部分校园,进行学校室内空气环境监测。

    除了一些大城市的学校,许多地方幼儿园、学校对于室内环境也越来越重视。以记者采访的内蒙古自治区人民政府机关幼儿园为例,其室内装修使用定向结构麦秸秆板材。这种以天然麦秸秆压制而成的板材无甲醛危害,真正做到安全健康。园长田劲枝表示,不论是前期的环境创设还是建造过程中材料的使用与控制,核心在于幼儿的健康。关注室内环境,使用环保材料,已经成为有前瞻理念的教育者需要思考的课题。国家家具及室内环境质量监督检验中心家具检测室主任孙书冬建议,应在正规家具商场选购知名度较高的名牌产品,还可通过主动询问材料内容来进一步了解相关指数。

    暑期装修高峰应注意甲醛危害

    即将到来的暑假是不少学校进行装修、改造的最佳时期。记者在首都师范大学看到,大门后侧新起的3座高楼正加紧建设。对于“最佳季节”,业内人士有着自己的忧虑。

    宋广生在接受本报记者采访时重点强调了建设黄金期的有毒物质挥发问题。他认为,暑假期间学校进行装修、改造后的环境质量问题需要引起包括学校在内的教育主管机构、政府相关部门的高度重视。

    “每年新学期开学的时候,也是学生家长向我们中心投诉最多的时候。”宋广生说。

    对此,他呼吁学校加强暑假期间装修、改造的管理。学校应在装修、改造中尽量使用较为环保的材料,例如水性漆、钢木结合结构的课桌椅等,杜绝使用污染材料,尽可能的减少甲醛释放量。另外也要加强对学校装修的监管,这要求相关职能部门及时了解动向,检测不合格的场所坚决不允许使用,切勿等到出现问题后再进行相应处理。

 

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